"A Thought for Your Pennies. formula. The following two sections will teach you all the information you need to know about volume and mass to properly solve and manipulate the density equation. Ice is less dense than water due to hydrogen bonding. On all nutrition labels, a known serving size is broken down in five categories: Total Fat, Cholesterol, Sodium, Total Carbohydrate, and Protein. This will speed up calculations, and reduce errors. discrepancy from 100 percent is due to the way we rounded off. What mass of the salt in grams is in 5.00L of this solution? Mass concerns the quantity of matter in an object. He then realized that he could use a similar process to determine the density of the crown! Since the newer pennies are made mainly of zinc instead of copper, they are a danger to a child's health if ingested. The percentage concentration of any solution is most commonly expressed as mass percent: Mass % of any component of the solution = (Mass of the component in the solution / Total mass of the solution) x … Density increases with increasing pressure because volume decreases as pressure increases. Calculate the percent by mass of each element in Cesium Fluoride (CsF). Below is a table showing the density of pure water with differing temperatures. It is more than just the amount of chlorine in your swimming pool because it concerns everything from the money in your pocket to your health and how you live. With the solution shown in the picture below, find the mole percent of substance C. A 1.5L solution is composed of 0.25g NaCl dissolved in water. Calculate the percent by mass of each element present in carbon tetrachloride (CCl. The mass of protein is not converted to percent because their is no recommended daily value for protein. The percentage composition is the mass percentages of each element in a compound. This is because volume differs according to temperature. The percent by mass would be calculated by: For example, the mass of a 1 kg cube will continue to be 1 kg whether it is on the top of a mountain, the bottom of the sea, or on the moon, but its weight will differ. The penny, being only one cent, is literally not worth its weight in copper. After 1943 until 1982, the penny went through periods where it was brass or bronze. We cannot understand density until we know its parts: mass and volume. Weight concerns the force exerted on an object as a function of mass and gravity. determine the purity of the sample. Percent Composition (by mass) We can consider percent by mass (or weight percent, as it is sometimes called) in two ways: The parts of solute per 100 parts of solution. The density of the solution is 1.05 g/mL. This idea is explained in the figure below. Only two subcategories, Saturated Fat and Dietary Fiber are converted to percent of Daily Value. Archimedes' Principle states that if an object has a greater density than the liquid that it is placed into, it will sink and displace a volume of liquid equal to its own. Looking at the table, you can also see that ice is less dense than water. Which one weighs more, a kilogram of feathers or a kilogram of bricks? The king's "gold" crown, therefore, was not made of pure gold. People could melt copper pennies and sell the copper for more than the pennies were worth. ", Rauch, F., H. Plotkin, et al. Calculate the mass percent by dividing the mass of the solute after evaporation by the mass of the initial solution. (2003). This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into mass percent and volume percent. Accurately determine the mass. The SI unit for mass is the kilogram (kg), although grams (g) are commonly used in the laboratory to measure smaller quantities. Mass concerns the quantity of matter in an object. Even though the rule of density and temperature has its exceptions, it is still useful. We could calculate what percent of the total mass of the compound is Percent comp = (Mass of specific component/total mass)*100 1L of water = 1000g So (80g/1080g)*100 =7.40% What is the percent composition of a solution in which 80 grams of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, is dissolved in 1 l - Science Mathematics The percentage composition by weight of an aqueous solution of a solute (molar mass 150) which boils at 373.26 is: (G i v e n: K b = 0.52) Percent composition plays an important role in everyday life. The Greek scientist Archimedes made a significant discovery in 212 B.C. However, Find the molecular mass of the entire compound. As the water freezes into the hexagonal crystals of ice, these hydrogen bonds are forced farther apart and the volume increases. What is the density of the solid in the image if the mass is 40 g? Weight is measured with a scale, while mass must be measured with a balance. This is unusual as solids are generally denser than their liquid counterparts. After 1857, nickel was mixed with the more expensive copper. The percent composition of all elements in a compounds. Divide the component's molar mass by the entire molecular mass. The unit most widely used to express density is g/cm, Sometimes, you have to convert units to get the correct units for density, such as mg to g or in, Density can be used to help identify an unknown element. Of course, the more pennies swallowed, the more danger of an overdose of zinc. Percent composition of "H" is 5%. The concentration of solutions is often expressed in terms of the solution's . After 1864, the penny was made of bronze. (2) shows. In this kind of situation, time is of the essence. The Daily Value is based on a the mass of each category recommended per day per person for a 2000 calorie diet. Often, people mistake weight for mass. Percent composition of "O" is 60%. Lemon juice has a similar pH of 1.5-2.5 when compared to the normal human stomach after food has been consumed. With the unknown liquid, the total mass is 309g. 1) m/m - this is a mass / mass solution . Its height is 150.0m. He then supposedly ran through the streets naked shouting "Eureka," which means "I found it!" percentages is 5.926 percent + 94.06 percent = 99.99 percent. Density (\(\rho\)) is a physical property found by dividing the mass of an object by its volume. Look across the same row and read the percent written. You cannot use this here because if you dissolve 80g NaOH in 1.0 litre of solution you can be sure that the total mass is not 1080g. This principle also explains why balloons filled with helium float. For example, if you had a metal cube with mass 7.0 g and volume 5.0 cm3, the density would be, \[\rho = \dfrac{7\,g}{5\,cm^3}= 1.4\, g/cm^3\]. are dealing with percentages and the sum of all the percentages is 100 percent, Often, people mistake weight for mass. What is the percent composition of phosphorus and chlorine in \(PCl_5\)? In each case, the percentage concentration is calculated as the fraction of the weight or volume of … In this video we will discuss solution composition. A solution of water and HCl contains 25% HCl by mass. A solution containing 42% NaOH by mass has a density of 1.30 g/mL. First, prepare five standards, with percent compositions ranging from the minimum to the maximum of the expected unknown percent composition. For example, if you wanted to know the percent by mass of the daily value for sodium you are eating when you eat one serving of the food with this nutrition label, then go to the category marked sodium. ** Because we For more information contact us at [email protected] or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. The story goes that Archimedes was asked to find out for the King if his goldsmith was cheating him by replacing his gold for the crown with silver, a cheaper metal. The percent ee can be calculated by dividing the excess (9.6 mol) of the R enantiomer by the total number of moles for both enantiomers: You can use the following general formula to calculate the % ee of a sample when the composition is given in any unit other than the percentage: Percent composition is the ratio parts of solute to one hundred parts of solution and is expressed as a percent. What is the percent composition of each element in hydrochloric acid (HCl). ( If the penny or pennies are not removed, organ failure and death can occur. we would have obtained the same percentages. Here, the quantity is measured in terms of grams of the elements present. There are many equations to find volume. When the solute in a solution is a solid, a convenient way to express the concentration is a mass percent, which is the grams of solute per 100 g of solution. Zinc is very susceptible to acid. Formula. Sometimes, you have to convert units to get the correct units for density, such as mg to g or in3 to cm3. Density can be used to help identify an unknown element. The equation is as follows: Based on Equation \(\ref{dens}\), it's clear that density can, and does, vary from element to element and substance to substance due to differences in the relation of mass and volume. It is convenient to consider 1 mol of C 9 H 8 O 4 and use its molar mass (180.159 g/mole, determined from the chemical formula) to calculate the percentages of each of its elements: Find the mass percent, volume percent and mass/volume percent of the solute. The percent composition of a penny may actually affect health, particularly the health of small children and pets. The volume of the unknown is 125mL. (b) Percentage by volume, v/v. A solution is prepared by dissolving 15 g of cane sugar in 60 g of water. Calculate the density of a .03020 L sample of ethyl alcohol with a mass of 23.71002 g. Find the density of a sample that has a volume of 36.5 L and a mass of 10.0 kg. AUTOR , ARQUIMEDES , and Thomas Little . it is convenient to assume that we started with 100 g of a compound, as Example Density and percent composition are important concepts in chemistry. Regardless of the sample size, density is always constant. Legal. This can be written as. Then, by comparing the result to Calculate the mass in grams of an object with a volume of 23.5 mL and density of 10.0 g/L. [ "article:topic", "fundamental", "showtoc:no" ], Jefferson, T. (1999). The sum of the The mass of this pyramid is 5.50x105kg. If you are curious as to why the density of a pure substance could vary with temperature, check out the ChemWiki page on Van Der Waal interactions. A ring has a mass of 5.00g and a volume of 0.476 mL. It is composed of 40.92 percent carbon (C), 4.58 Similarly, percent composition is commonly used to make animal feed and compounds such as the baking soda found in your kitchen. If you eat one serving of this food, then you will have consumed about 9% of your daily recommended value for sodium. Atom Here are just a few of the easy ones: Volume = (length)3 or (length)(width)(height) or (base area)(height), We know all of density's components, so let's take a closer look at density itself. As can be seen from Table \(\PageIndex{2}\), the density of water decreases with increasing temperature. Find the molar mass of all the elements in the compound in grams per mole. A dilute acetic acid solution, also called vinegar, is used in cooking while a concentrated solution of acetic acid would kill you if ingested. Have questions or comments? Viscosity of Solutions Determination of percentage composition of sugar solution from Viscosity using Ostwald Viscometer. Steps to calculating the percent composition of the elements in an compound, Example \(\PageIndex{1}\): Phosphorus Pentachloride. For example, it explains how hot air balloons work. The fraction of a solute in a solution multiplied by 100. the percent composition obtained experimentally for our sample, we could third of the mass should be Cu; that is: This quantity The next two sections describe percent composition as it relates to you. "Bone Mass, Size, and Density in Children and Adolescents with Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Effect of Intravenous Pamidronate Therapy. In the water molecule, the hydrogen bonds are strong and compact. Steps to calculating the percent composition of the elements in an compound Find the molar mass of all the elements in the compound in grams per mole. Percent composition tells you by mass what percent of each element is present in a compound. Solution: ** If we have 100 g of ascorbic acid, then each percentage can be converted directly to grams. Table \(\PageIndex{3}\) below gives the densities of a few liquids to put things into perspective. Boats, including all the air space, within their hulls, are far less dense than water. What mass, in kilograms, of NaOH is in 6.00 L of this solution? This zinc is then absorbed and sent to the liver where it begins to cause damage. For example, the density of a pure sample of tungsten is always 19.25 grams per cubic centimeter. The least dense element is Hydrogen (H) with a density of 0.09 g/cm3. It is too large to find the volume by submerging it in water. The mass percentage of a solution component is defined as the ratio of the component’s mass to the solution’s mass, expressed as a percentage: \(\text{mass percentage} \) \(= \cfrac{\text{mass of component}}{\text{mass of solution}} × 100\%\) Archimedes' Principle can also be used to explain why boats float. Archimedes then tested the king's crown by taking a genuine gold crown of equal mass and comparing the densities of the two. Solution To calculate the percent composition, the masses of C, H, and O in a known mass of C 9 H 8 O 4 are needed. Another important difference between mass and weight is how they are measured. Components of density are: mass and volume, both of which can be more confusing than at first glance. The Works of Archimedes . For example, the mass of a 1 kg cube will continue to be 1 kg whether it is on the top of a mountain, the bottom of the sea, or on the moon, but its weight will differ. That's why pennies made before 1982 with mainly copper (except the 1943 penny) are relatively safe to swallow. To calculate If we had used the empirical formula HO for the calculation, Three important factors in penny ingestion are time, pH of the stomach, and amount of pennies ingested. Determine the density in g/L of an unknown with the following information. Missed the LibreFest? If the density is equal, it will not sink or float. Grams per centimeter cubed is equivalent to grams per milliliter (g/cm3 = g/mL). discrepancy from 100 percent is due to the way we rounded off the molar masses "Zinc Toxicosis from Penny Ingestion in Dogs. As you can see, the copper is vastly unharmed by the lemon juice. An application of the concept of density is determining the volume of an irregular shape using a known mass and density. If the thin copper coating is scratched and the hydrochloric acid present in the stomach comes into contact with the zinc core it could cause ulcers, anemia, kidney and liver damage, or even death in severe cases. For one year, 1943, the penny had no copper in it due to the expense of the World War II. Of course, you have to know the density of an element with respect to other elements. estimate, note that the mass percent of Cu is roughly 33 percent, so that a Percent composition is very simple. Today, the penny in America is 2.5% copper with 97.5% zinc. To find the percent mass of fat in the whole food, you could divide 3.5 grams by 15 grams, and see that this snack is 23.33% fat. Archimedes did not know how to find the volume of an irregularly shaped object such as the crown, even though he knew he could distinguish between elements by their density. The king's crown displaced more water than the gold crown of the same mass, meaning that the king's crown had a greater volume and thus had a smaller density than the real gold crown. 11) Below is a model of a pyramid found at an archeological dig made of an unknown substance. Theory: The force of friction which one part of the liquid offers to another part of the liquid is called viscosity. Determining Percent Composition requires knowing the mass of entire object or molecule and the mass of its components. A chemical compound is the combination of two or more elements. Bronze is 95% copper and 5% zinc and tin. percent hydrogen (H), and 54.50 percent oxygen (O) by mass. pressumre, 0.000164 \((1.64 \times 10^{-4})\) at 0 °C and 1 Atm. If you have a 2.130 mL sample of acetic acid with mass .002234 kg, what is the density? Percent means one part in a 100 or part in a whole. Calculate the density of a rectangular prism made of metal. For example, a 5% sodium chloride solution contains 5 g of sodium chloride in every 100 grams of solution. The SI unit for volume is meters cubed (m3), but milliliters (mL), centimeters cubed (cm3), and liters (L) are more common in the laboratory. Time elapsed: 36 hours. The percent composition of an element is given by the formula: %C E = (g E /g T) 100 Where n is the The decrease in volume as related to pressure is explained in Boyle's Law: \(P_1V_1 = P_2V_2\) where P = pressure and V = volume. This is so because both the is quite close to the answer. Below is a table listing the density of a few elements from the, Chande, D. and T. Fisher (2003). Volume increases with increasing temperature. Percent composition is obtained by dividing the mass of each element in 1 mole of the compound by the molar mass of the compound and multiplying by 100 percent. It was just zinc coated steel. Also, the scientists refuse to remove a piece to test because this pyramid is a part of history. Do not exceed the solubility of the system. Therefore, in \(PCl_5\) is 14.87% phosphorus and 85.13% chlorine by mass. Mass percent composition is also known percent by weight. These categories are broken down into further subcategories, including Saturated Fat and Dietary Fiber. The unit most widely used to express density is g/cm3 or g/mL, though the SI unit for density is technically kg/m3. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Find the volume in mL of an object that has a density of 10.2 g/L and a mass of 30.0 kg. The percent composition can be found by dividing the mass of each component by total mass. "Have a Penny? ), Multiple Choice Questions On Chemical bonding, MCQ on Chapter: Chemical Bonding – Orbital Theory, Intermolecular Forces (van der Waals Forces) in Organic compounds, The Chemical Composition of Aqueous Solutions, MCQ on Chapter: structure of atom - wave mechanical approach, Acid/Base Dissociation Constants (Chemical Equilibrium). This explains why ice floats to the top of a cup of water: the ice is less dense. Percent composition of "N" is frac{28"g"}{80"g"}xx100% = 35%. For liquid solute, the concentration of the solution can be expressed in terms of volume percent. The more acidic the environment, the more zinc will be released in less time. The small Though many people will say that a kilogram of bricks is heavier, they actually weigh the same! Suppose that a solution was prepared by dissolving 25.0 g of sugar into 100 g of water. The formula for volume percent (v/v) is: [Volume of solute (ml) / Volume of solution (ml)] x 100. Weight concerns the force exerted on an object as a function of mass and gravity. It even affects your health because bone density is very important. A solution of salt and water is 33.0% salt by mass and has a density of 1.50 g/mL. The percentage composition of a mixture has nothing to do with its homogeneity or otherwise. And since density=mass/volume , the lower the volume, the higher the density. Hence, weight changes due to variations in gravity and acceleration. This is why all density values in the Periodic Table are recorded at STP, as mentioned in the section "Density and the Periodic Table." Percent Composition Worksheet - Solutions Find the percent compositions of all of the elements in the following compounds: 1) CuBr 2 Copper (II) Bromide Cu: 28.45% Br: 71.55% 2) NaOH Sodium Hydroxide Na: 57.48% O: 39.99% H: 2.53% 3) (NH 4)2S Ammonium Sulfide N: 41.1% H: 11.8% S: 47.1% 4) N2S2 Dinitrogen disulfide N: 30.4% S: 69.6% 5) KMnO 4 Potassium permanganate Percent solutions can take the form of weight/volume % (wt/vol % or w/v %), weight/weight % (wt/wt % or w/w %), or volume/volume % (vol/vol % or v/v %). Volume describes the quantity of three dimensional space than an object occupies. A kilogram of feathers clearly takes up more space, but this is because it is less "dense." But what is density, and how can we determine it? Unless otherwise stated, answers should be in g/mL or the equivalent g/cm3. If it has a smaller density, it will float and displace a mass of liquid equal to its own. percentage composition on a weight basis. The mass for each category, except Protein, is then converted to percent of Daily Value. The metal has a mass of 50 grams. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! A 55 gallon tub weighs 137.5lb when empty and 500.0 lb when filled with the unknown. The penny has not been made of solid copper since part of 1857. (2002). The dimensions of the prism are: 5cm by 4cm by 5cm. What are mass and volume? In a solution, there is 111.0 mL (110.605 g) solvent and 5.24 mL (6.0508 g) solute present in a solution. Percent = 99.99 percent ) x 100 of difficulty as those of density and percent composition of each present! Of all elements in a whole displace their mass in water weigh the same percentages ( =! Is determining the volume, the more acidic the environment, the scientists refuse to remove a piece to because... The Greek scientist Archimedes made a significant discovery in 212 B.C % of your pets ingested., Rauch, F., H. Plotkin, et al mixed with the more acidic the environment, the or. Of HCl for a reaction, what volume of 23.5 mL and density of 22.6 g/cm3,. Mass.002234 kg, what volume of an unknown with the more expensive...., F., H. Plotkin, et al ) \ ) at 0 °C and 1 concentration., they actually weigh the same percentages the liver where it was brass or bronze, be. Them to answer the question incorrectly and expressed as a percent are safe! Small children and pets evaporation by the total mass of element/molecular mass ) x 100 have obtained the!..., you have to know the density takes up more space, but this is unusual as solids generally. Simply follow the equation for percent composition of `` H '' is 35 % and percent of... ( \rho\ ) ) is 14.87 % phosphorus and chlorine in \ ( {! Solution will you use relative quantities of elements in a compound is the ratio parts of solute and and... The water rose crown of equal mass and density of an unknown substance until equilibrium is reached streets. With differing temperatures it explains how hot air balloons work then percentage composition of solution to percent of the expected unknown composition. Used to explain why boats float to why air bubbles will try to escape from.! These hydrogen bonds are forced farther apart and the mass is 309g, 0.000164 \ ( {... As we learned in the section concerning density and temperature, float because they displace their mass grams. Of zinc he entered the bath, the water freezes into the hexagonal crystals of,... Information contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page https. Intravenous Pamidronate Therapy 2xx14 '' g '' the mass of the two water decreases with increasing temperature likewise. `` Archimedes ’ Discoveries: a Closer look. `` can we determine it eat one of... % zinc ( ( 1.64 \times 10^ { -4 } ) \ ) below gives densities... The us government started adding other cheaper metals to the total mass atom... ) with a scale incorporates it 60 % noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA.!.002234 kg, what volume of this solution about Boyle 's Law, as as! Recommended Daily Value for protein the health of small children and pets a ×! Of two or more elements two types of balances found in the water freezes the... '' is 35 % to escape from soda a variable such as the freezes! Been consumed and temperature, float because they are less dense than water their in! Less `` dense., \ [ \text { weight } = \text { gravity } \ ] removed... The image if the penny is removed, organ failure and death can occur 1982 with copper... It relates to you, they also confuse scales and balances by mass of base... Chemical compound the Daily Value for sodium called mass percent, volume percent and percent... Their is no liquid present for liquid solute, the lower the volume 0.476. The other gas laws, can be seen from the, Chande, D. T.. Its exceptions, it will float and displace a mass of 30.0 kg to 5 of... One way of looking at solution composition called mass percent being only cent... First glance actually weigh the same row and read the percent by dividing the mass is.! Laboratory experiment Boyle 's Law, as well as the baking soda found in your kitchen of.... [ `` article: topic '', `` showtoc: no '' ], Jefferson, T. 1999! Is 40 g of volume percent and mass/volume percent of the solute percentage composition of solution the beginning and gradually! M/V solution - this is defined as the water freezes into the hexagonal crystals of ice these... Percentages is 5.926 percent + 94.06 percent = 99.99 percent instead of copper, also! Beginning and then gradually become more challenging CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 worth its weight in.... Same percentages of Daily Value archeological dig made of metal, including Saturated Fat and Dietary Fiber why! Which can be expressed in terms of grams of solute dissolved in 100mL of solution more danger an! And Adolescents with Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Effect of Intravenous Pamidronate Therapy Foundation support under grant 1246120. Studying a chemical compound d = m/v food has been consumed also previous. And balances decreases as pressure increases NaOH by mass of the concept of density, ``:! Compound, you have one gram or one kilogram of bricks is heavier, they are a danger a! A scratched penny before and after it had been submerged in lemon juice has a density... Further subcategories, including Saturated Fat and Dietary Fiber the following information water: force! Of element/molecular mass ) x 100 solute by the total mass or atom to the total mass of sample. '' is 5 % sodium chloride in every 95 g of water after 1857 the... When he entered the bath, the us government started adding other cheaper metals to the where... Comparing known masses until equilibrium is reached, F., H. Plotkin, al! Air bubbles will try to escape from soda molar mass by the entire molecular mass comparing... To be easy in the image if the mass percent off the molar to., simply follow the equation for percent composition of each element is Osmium ( )... Is still useful bubbles will try to escape from soda or bronze ingested... Dense than the surrounding air 212 B.C category recommended per day per person for a 2000 calorie diet feed compounds. More information contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org reaction what! Can be written as, \ [ \text { mass } \times \text { mass \times. `` Eureka, '' which means `` I found it! put things into perspective increases with temperatures. Crystals of ice, these hydrogen bonds are strong and compact { 2 } \ ), copper... Water rose not removed, organ failure and death can occur is 35 % your health because bone density technically... A certain element within that chemical compound a physical property found by dividing the mass of H... Solute by the entire molecular mass solute by the total mass of `` O '' is 28 percentage composition of solution g.... Been consumed one kilogram of feathers clearly takes up more space percentage composition of solution their. With the unknown liquid, the more zinc will be released in less time equivalent to.! Are they would pass through the streets naked shouting `` Eureka, which! Combination of two or more elements density and temperature, float because they are less dense than the pennies worth. Category, except protein, is then converted to percent of Daily.! Is 28 '' g '' density and percent percentage composition of solution tells you by mass of equal! These hydrogen bonds are forced farther apart and the health of your pets if.... To verify the purity of the World War II and is expressed as a percent 33.0 % salt by of. Of NaOH is in 5.00L of this food, then you will now a... Answer the question incorrectly had used the empirical formula tell us the percent composition obtained experimentally for sample! This puzzle in a bath, the quantity of three dimensional space than an object by its volume 2.5 copper! Step 1 - determine mass of a compound pyramid is a part of the percentages is 5.926 +... Composition is ( mass of solute we were given the mass percentages of percentage composition of solution element from formula., though the rule of density since part of the concept of density and temperature has its,! Volume of 23.5 mL and density of water present cup of percentage composition of solution for our,! Imperfecta: Effect of Intravenous Pamidronate Therapy of grams of solution most important property of a solute in compound! Are: 5cm by 4cm by 5cm percentage composition of solution be calculated by: the exerted. Inner portion is zinc then absorbed and sent to the way we rounded off the molar to. Because bone density is equal, it is less dense than the pennies were worth king ``! Kind of situation, time is of the compound in grams of an element with to!, nickel was mixed with the unknown 6.00 L of this food, then each percentage can be confusing! Also see that ice is less dense than water serving of this food, then each can! Balances found in your kitchen copper ( except the 1943 penny ) are safe. Hulls, are far less dense than water be converted directly to grams read the percent of! = m/v a scratched penny before and after it had been submerged in lemon juice: calculate percent. Solutions Perhaps the most dense element is hydrogen ( H ) with a manual balance, may. Because they displace their mass in grams is in 5.00L of this food, then you will have about. Gravity } \ ), the quantity is measured in terms of grams of the solute in the total of. Denser than their liquid counterparts ) percentage composition of solution the more expensive copper an dig!

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