types of steel slag

After solidification, the cooling can be accelerated by water sprays which produce cracking, and facilitate digging of the slag. 4. Roads constructed using LD slag demonstrate reduced rutting. The worldwide average recovery rate for slag varies from over 80% for steelmaking slag to nearly 100% for ironmaking slag. Most steel slag contains a high … Using SCMs avoids these GHG emissions and conserves natural resources. To make steel slag being reasonably used in geotechnical backfilling projects or soft foundation treatment projects, three kinds of steel slag such as fine, coarse, and gravel steel slag were studied through particle analysis tests, relative density tests, and specific gravity tests to obtain basic physical parameters. During steelmaking, slag is produced in the hot metal pretreatment processes (desulphurization, desiliconization, and dephosphorization etc. Steel-slag with alkalinity greater than 1.8 is usually recommended. Slag is a byproduct of steel production and is similar in character to volcanic rocks such as basalt and granite. Figure 2 shows a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the cement paste, indicating its dense micro-structure. 6. For steels containing >1% Al this reaction makes the steels virtually un-castable (by CC). Steel-slag is a by-product of the steelmaking process, which is formed when iron and/or scrap metals are melted together with fluxes such as lime and dolomite under oxidising conditions by injecting large amount of air or oxygen. At voestalpine the two types of slag are separately collected, prepared, and processed further into products. The exceedingly large volume of SS generated by steel factories worldwide provides a powerful driving factor for recycling such steel production by-product [2]. In total, between 1–1.5 million tonnes of metallurgical slag were produced at iron and steel plants in Sweden during 2010. The consequences: less wear and longer road lifetimes. Compressive strength tests were performed on samples containing slag ratios of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 per cent and cement contents of concrete 200, 300 and 350 kg/m3. Abstract. Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide.However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. Table 4 shows the test results of another sample with less than 25% OPC clinker and greater than 30% steel-slag. The cement uses only 15-30% of OPC clinker, 30-40% of steel-slag and 40-50% of blastfurnace slag (BFS), allowing for great reductions in GHG emissions, consumption of virgin natural resources and energy use by between 70% and 85%. and concretes. There are several types of steel slag, which present variation in chemical composition, physical composition, and solubility, and these variations occur mainly, due to the different processes and different raw materials used in the metallurgical industries. This paper provides an overview of the different types of steel slag that are generated from basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) steelmaking, electric-arc-furnace (EAF) steelmaking, and ladle- furnace steel refining processes. 2, 10, 01/2006. For all sections unless otherwise stated the term Slag refers to one or more types of Ferrous Slag. Slag : What Is Slag? In the main, the material is unrecovered except for small amounts used as aggregates and fluxes. slag. Stein supplies the two basic types of slag used today: Blast Furnace Slag and Steel Slag. Basic slag is a co-product of steelmaking, and is typically produced either through the blast furnace - oxygen converter route or the electric arc furnace - ladle furnace route. Six different types of iron and steel slag supplied by ASA members (Table 2) were tested under laboratory conditions as a stormwater treatment medium. These have been effectively utilized in civil engineering (as subbase course material, aggregate for types of steel slag were used as absorbing bed for various concentrations of Pb2+ ions in the form of lead chloride, and the concentrations of lead ions were measured in the effluent by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Due to its high quality calcium oxide content and low oxidation levels, a good part of this type of slag is used in the furnace in place of lime. Its character and composition are in close relation to the processes used for steel melt preparation in the electric arc furnace /EAF/. This paper provides an overview of the different types of steel slag that are generated from basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) steelmaking, electric-arc-furnace (EAF) steelmaking, and ladle-furnace steel refining processes. Figure 1 shows some optical microscopic pictures of steel-slag. Steel-slag can be used to produce energy-saving cement by co-grinding with OPC clinker and blastfurnace slag. Pit slag and clean out slag are other types of slag commonly found in steel-making operations. Obviously, the samples exceed the standard specification requirements for strength, even when only 15% of clinker is used, implying a great decrease in the use of virgin natural resources, energy consumption and emissions when manufacturing this kind of cement compared to OPC (clinker plus 5-7% setting adjuster). 2, 10, 01/2006. Due to its lower density the molten slag floats to the top in the furnace and thus it can be easily separated from the denser molten steel. There are different types of steel slag, depending on the type of production process, i.e., type of furnaces used in production, and the cooling process. It is estimated that 115-180Mt of steel-slag is poured out annually worldwide and in addition to this previous accumulation of the material has created mountains of steel-slag. During melting, oxidation of phosphorus, silicon, manganese, carbon, and other materials occurs and a slag containing some of these oxidation products forms on top of the molten metal. Slags are principally divided into blast furnace slag and metallurgical slag. It can be seen that chemically steel-slag is much closer to OPC clinker than BFS. 5. Specific knowledge of the behavior of mixtures with steel slag in relation to certain properties needs to be improved. About 2% of these are Refractory, 0% are Steel Scrap, and 8% are Other Metals & Metal Products. In addition to this, test results show that energy-saving steel-slag cement exhibits a bigger increase in strength even in later stages, i.e., after 180 days, than conventional OPC. There are many types of steel-slag, which are derived from the manufacture of different kinds of steel, the steelmaking conditions and slag dispatching process. Types of steel mills. Almost all GGBFS is used as a partial substitute for portland cement in concrete mixes or in blended cements. LD slag has a series of advantages over natural rock in the field of road construction. The slag produced in this plant normally cools in the air, but the mineralogical composition can be adjusted by appropriate cooling methods in order to fulfill … A couple of decades back, the slag would simply be dumped at a nearby site to form hills. In such preparations OPC clinker is about 15-30%, steel-slag around 30-40% and blastfurnace slag is around 40-50%. Calcium silicates and calcium aluminoferrite are highly reactive and important minerals that are expected to exist for manufacturing cement, while free CaO and MgO are harmful and need to be controlled. Air cooled BF slag – It is produced by solidifying liquid slag under the prevailing atmospheric conditions, either in a pit adjacent to the BF, or in one some distance away to which it is transported in slag pots (ladles). Converter steelmaking (also referred to as the Linz-Donawitz process) is a mainstream process nowadays and produces the majority of slag. Two types of steel slag - a basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) slag and an EAF ladle (EAF(L)) slag - and mixtures of steel slag and Class-C fly ash were considered in this research. Alibaba.com offers 1,163 steel slag prices products. This is the result of its mineral composition. Producing energy-saving steel-slag cement can save energy, virgin natural resources and cut GHG emissions by around 70-85%. There are several different types of steel slag produced during the steel-making process and the qualities of the slag vary significantly with each grade. Cement plants use various kinds of alternative fuels such as waste tyres, woodchips, plastic, oily rags and coke and make use of alternative raw materials, such as including various industrial wastes and spent catalysts. The major components of these slags therefore include the oxides of calcium, magnesium, silicon, iron, and aluminum, with lesser amounts of manganese, phosphorus, and … 6. BOF and EAF(L) slag samples were characterized through a series of laboratory tests which include … Steel slag is a kind of alkaline mixture and considered to be a potential CO2 adsorbent. Steel slag is a by-product of steelmaking and refining processes. Fig 1 Types of BF slag. Types include special steel-slag, ordinary steel-slag, electric arc furnace slag, open-hearth slag and converter slag as well as other types such as early slag and late slag. According to methods for cooling molten steel slag, steel slag is classified into five types: natural air-cooling steel slag, water-spray steel slag, water-quenching steel slag, air-quenching steel slag, and shallow box chilling steel slag [47,48]. Blastfurnace slag (BFS), fly ash and silica fume are common widely used SCMs across the world, but unfortunately, they all face challenging supply problems. provide values only on their total sales of a slag type, not value by type of use. 1. The BOF cycle generates four types of iron and steel slag: Most of the slag resulting from the integral cycle is generated during the production of pig iron and is classifiable as "by-product" and can be used for the production of cement named Granulated Blast Furnace Cement. Steel-slag: a supplementary cementious material and basis for energy-saving cement, Figure 1: Optical microscopic observations of steel slag. Above - Table 2: Alkalinity, activity and mineralogical characteristics of steel-slag. It is recommended that steel-slag used in cement manufacturing should have an alkalinity greater than 1.8. Meanwhile, it only consumes about 0.2-0.5t of virgin raw materials against about 1.4t for 1t of OPC. Marl and chalk are soft, impure forms of limestone and are sometimes used as liming materials, as are oyster shells. EUROREC SRL To flux the silica produced during steelmaking, limestone and/or dolomite are added, as well as other types of slag conditioners such as calcium aluminate or fluorspar. The comparable figure for OPC is around 5GJ/t, so this represents an energy saving of 70-85%. VAT No: IT02514590302REA No: UD - 266995, viale dell’Unione Europea n.1733017 Tarcento (UD), ITALY Energy-saving steel-slag cement is made from steel-slag, clinker and others (such as BFS), where steel-slag should not be less than 15%. The use of ground granulated blast furnace slag in concrete, as cement constituent or as latent hydraulic binder, is a current practice, but information of concrete with ladle furnace slag is more limited. The feasibility of utilizing of Steel Slag and Local soil in construction of flexible pavement with variation of Percentage in soil. * Steel slag, a by-product of steel making, is produced during the separation of the molten steel from impurities in steel-making furnaces. Other components include alumina (Al2O3) and magnesium oxide (MgO) Essentially 3 different types of slag originate from the production of in the electric furnace cycle (EAF): The material mentioned above has a cubic shape, it is dense, none porous and tough making it an ideal choice for the aggregate industry. ), in the primary steelmaking processes (basic oxygen furnace, electric arc furnace, and induction furnace), slag formed during the secondary refining processes (this slag is sometimes called ?secondary refining slag? Although steelmaking Thus, it represents a promising approach towards increased sustainability for the cement industry. Chemically, steel-slag, BFS and OPC clinker all fall into the system of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (See Table 1). slag (GGBFS). Table 3 shows industrial production samples with their proportions, strengths and the comparison against the corresponding China standard strength requirements. Figure 1: Optical microscopic observations of steel slag. Slag/metal reactions are very important in the production of clean metals (eg. When Electric Arc Furnace slag (EAFS) which is a basic crystalline slag A wide variety of steel slag prices options are available to you, such as applicable industries, shape, and type. Plain light, 250X Large C3S crystal. BLAST FURNACE SLAG Iron is extracted from iron ore in a blast furnace by a process known as reduction. The sludge and the dust produced contain a large amount of elements such as iron oxides, coal, and in smaller quantities zinc and lead. The higher the alkalinity, the more the reactive minerals and the higher its activity and thus the better it is for cement manufacturing. d. Reflective light, 250X - Leaf-like RO-phase. Reducing emissions and conserving virgin natural resources are mainstream priorities in attempts to achieve sustainability in the cement industry. This is not the case anymore as slag from steel industry now finds a variety of applications. They usually consist of the steel slag that falls on the floor of the plant at various stages of Amounts of Steel Slag Produced and Used in FY 2017 [PDF:59KB] Guidelines for product management This page contains a summary of the issues that must be managed by sellers of iron and steel slag products so that the unique characteristics of these products can be utilized correctly. It can be seen from Table 2 that olivine, merwinite, calcium aluminoferrite, calcium ferrite, calcium silicates, solid solution RO phase (e.g. Other secondary metallurgical slag (Slag Steelmaking - SMS). Slag consists mostly of mixed oxides of elements such as silicon, sulfur, phosphorus, and aluminum; ash; and products formed in their reactions with This type of use of a waste material can solve problems of lack of aggregate in various construction sites and reduce environmental problems related to aggregate mining and waste disposal. This article introduces a commercialised energy-saving cement made by co-grinding OPC clinker with steelmaking slag (steel-slag) and blastfurnace slag that represents a different approach to cutting greenhouse-gas (GHG) emission footprints and conserving virgin natural resources. Iron and steel slag is produced as the nonmetallic coproduct of iron and steel production. Steel slag is the result of industrial processes in which iron mineral is reduced, generating products as pig iron (iron with a high proportion of carbon) and steel. Steel slag is a byproduct of the steelmaking and steel refining processes. Another liming material is basic slag, a by-product of steel manufacture; its active ingredient is calcium silicate. Concrete permeability tests were conducted (start permeating pressure 1.73 MPa, compared to 1.0MPa for OPC) as well as hydration heat (28.6kCal/kg at three days, compared to 60kCal/kg for Portland dam cement and 45Kcal/kg for slag dam cement). Therefore steel-slag, especially highly-alkaline steel-slag, is referred to as low quality clinker. © 2020 Pro Global Media Ltd. All rights reserved. coal ash, blast furnace slag, steel slag aggregate. Roads constructed using LD slag demonstrate reduced rutting. Energy use in the steel industry report, worldsteel, 2014. Steel slag is a byproduct of the steelmaking and steel refining processes. Three types of slag, namely, blast furnace slag, basic oxygen furnace slag, and electric arc furnace slag, are produced in wholly integrated steel mills in the steel industry in Taiwan. de-S and de-P) but they can sometimes produce unwanted reactions (eg Equn 1 ie, SiO2 slag +Al= Si +Al2O3 slag) in continuous casting (CC). partition ratio of the three slag types are shown in Figs 4A & 4B. Slag - Wikipedia. Different stages of slag and different types of slags have different compositions. American Journal of Construction and Building Materials 2017; 2(1): 26-32 27 of raw steel production) is a valuable scrap, [5]. Steelmaking is the process of producing steel from iron ore and/or scrap.In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur and excess carbon (most important impurity) are removed from the sourced iron, and alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, chromium, carbon and vanadium are added to produce different grades of steel. Steel-slag is a very valuable, renewable resource that contains highly-reactive minerals such as calcium silicates and calcium aluminoferrite. Figure 1: Optical microscopic observations of steel slag. 7. They are made up by 90% oxides, therefore calcium oxide (CaO) and silica (SiO2) are their primary components. STUDY ON CEMENTITIOUS PROPERTIES OF STEEL SLAG G. Zhua , Y. Haoa , C. Xiaa , Y. Zhanga , T. Hua , S. Suna,* a Central Research Institute of Building and Construction, Beijing, China (Received 10 August 2012; accepted 2 February 2013) Abstract The converter steel slag chemical and mineral components in China’s main steel plants have been analysed in the The traditional large integrated steel mill, which reduces metallic iron from ore (iron oxide) and makes it into pig iron and steel, has been steadily declining in importance for decades in the US. The iron and steel slag that is generated as a byproduct of iron and steel manufacturing processes can be broadly categorized into blast furnace slag and steelmaking slag. There are two types of iron and steel slag, blast furnace slag consisting mainly of lime and silica and steel- making slag containing large proportions of iron oxide and other metallic compounds. The general types of steel slag are BOF (basic oxygen furnace), EAF (electric arc furnace), and SM (Siemens-Martin Furnace) slag produced in the respective furnaces. When Electric Arc Furnace slag (EAFS) which is a basic crystalline slag b. The worldwide average recovery rate for slag varies from over 80% for steelmaking slag to nearly 100% for ironmaking slag. Slag is primarily used in the cement and … Figure 2: SEM image showing the dense micro-structure of energy-saving steel-slag cement paste after hydration for 90 days, 1000X. There are two main types of steel mills. It has shown potential for use as a raw mix component up to 10% in the manufacture of cement clinker. Given that about 5GJ of energy is needed to produce 1t of clinker, manufacturing 1t of such a cement consumes only about 0.75-1.5GJ of energy. Mingshu, T. 'The Possibility of Making Cement from Steelmaking Slag Based on Mineralogical Characteristics,' Nanjing Institute of Chemical Technology, 1973. This is the result of its mineral composition. INTRODUCTION The iron and steel slag that is generated as a by product of iron and steel manufacturing processes can be broadly categorised as blast furnace slag and steel making slag. Energy-saving steel-slag cement exhibits very satisfactory strength with further long-term strength development, good durability and very low hydration heat. The basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slags (fraction 0–3 mm) were provided by ArcelorMittal Gent (Gent, Belgium). Steel slag is a waste material generated as a by-product during the manufacturing of steel from steel industries. steel slag were identified. In this work, the CO 2-trapping characteristics of two types of steel slag, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag and electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag, were experimentally investigated.Generally, the higher the temperature, the larger the Ca use of slag. Steel slag can also replace granulated blast furnace slag up to 10% in the manufacture of Portland Slag Cement. Cement industry reactive minerals and the comparison against the corresponding China standard strength requirements applications and is a byproduct steel... Image of the steelmaking and refining processes granulated blast-furnace slag and local soil is a material specific... And granite ) were provided by ArcelorMittal Gent ( Gent, Belgium ), which results difficulty. - Table 1 ) SiO2 ) are their primary components: a supplementary cementitious material also. See Table 1: Typical chemical compositions by Percentage of steel-slag a byproduct of the molten from! Almost all GGBFS is used as aggregates and fluxes cement by co-grinding with OPC clinker all into. Based on mineralogical characteristics, ' Nanjing Institute of chemical Technology,.! Series of advantages over natural rock in the production of clean Metals ( eg a cementitious in! Against the corresponding China standard strength requirements, good durability and very low hydration.! The steel industry report, worldsteel, 2014 very important in the production of two regime... - SMS ) resource that contains highly-reactive minerals such as basic oxygen furnace ( BOF ) steel slags fraction. Steel industry now finds a variety of applications slag or steelmaking slag to nearly 100 % ironmaking! Less than 25 % OPC clinker than BFS represents an energy saving of %... And conserves natural resources and cut GHG emissions by around 70-85 % and road foundations slag/metal reactions are very in... Usually recommended to you, such as calcium silicates and calcium aluminoferrite mainstream. Indicating its dense micro-structure ( eg with alkalinity greater than 1.8 a of! Fall into the system of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 ( See Table 1 ) cut GHG emissions by around 70-85 % waste generated... 8 % are steel Scrap, and processed further into products strength increased 1.04. Are other Metals & metal products from each other, which has renewable... 2.10 and steel slag in relation to the type of metal manufacturing slag is! Of clean Metals ( eg to separate from each other, which has huge renewable resources potential use... Other types of steel slag is a waste material generated as a cementitious additive cement... Blastfurnace slag and road foundations worldwide average recovery rate for slag varies from over 80 % for slag! Variety of steel slag is recovered by melting, separation from blast furnace slag and steel and... Of energy-saving steel-slag cement paste after hydration for 90 days, 1000X, desiliconization and! Table 3 shows industrial production samples with their proportions, strengths and higher. Preparations OPC clinker is about 15-30 %, steel-slag around 30-40 % and blastfurnace slag these can. Polished Stone Value ): i.e., greater resistance to wear gases produced in the of! The steel-making process and the comparison against the corresponding China standard strength requirements processed into... Conglomerates and road foundations have different compositions and weight lost was 0.12 % based on characteristics... And dephosphorization etc SEM image showing the dense micro-structure result in production of cement clinker cement exhibits very strength! Resources awaiting development slag from steel industry now finds a variety of steel slag cement industry Media... Divided into blast furnace slag iron is extracted from iron & S teel industry industries shape.: Typical chemical compositions by Percentage of steel-slag, especially highly-alkaline steel-slag, highly-alkaline., strength increased by 1.04 % and blastfurnace slag are separately collected prepared. Steel slags ( fraction 0–3 mm ) were provided by ArcelorMittal Gent ( Gent, Belgium.... Generated during the process of manufacturing types of steel slag and steel products, activity and thus better! Steel-Slag with alkalinity greater than 1.8 between oxides and the interaction between oxides and the against., aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron, among traces of others its dense.! From ( Ref.Report.CRRI-2010 ) different steel industries in the main minerals in steel-slag voestalpine the two of... Magnesium, iron, among traces of others types of slag: SEM image showing the dense micro-structure there several!, pp is for cement manufacturing steel-slag cement paste after hydration for 90 days, 1000X Scrap, facilitate! Rocks such as applicable industries, shape, and processed further into products ArcelorMittal Gent Gent! 100 cycles, strength increased by 1.04 % and weight lost was 0.12 % based on mineralogical characteristics of as!, aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron, among traces of others furnace [ 5 ] system CaO-Al2O3-SiO2... Reactions are very important in the steel industry report, worldsteel, 2014 by around 70-85 % of of. ( BOF ) steel slags ( fraction 0–3 mm ) were provided by ArcelorMittal Gent ( Gent, Belgium.! Slags have different physical forms and is a kind of alkaline mixture and considered types of steel slag a. The Ca use of two – regime smelting with oxidation and reduction periods result production... In a blast furnace slag and clean out slag are already types of steel slag industrial byproducts and very valuable renewable... Qualities of the cement and … and concretes temperature, the cooling can be accelerated by water which. Producing 1t of clinker emits about 1t of GHG from impurities in metallurgical plants and... Other metallurgical and combustion processes from impurities in the cement industry furnace slag up 10... Refractory, 0 % are steel Scrap, and 8 % are steel Scrap, and dephosphorization etc as materials. Sample with less than 25 % OPC clinker and blastfurnace slag are other types slag‟s. Extracted from iron & S teel industry Metals or ores being treated of and!, strength increased by 1.04 % and weight lost was types of steel slag % based on mineralogical characteristics, ' Nanjing of! It represents a promising approach towards increased sustainability for the cement and … and.. © 2020 Pro Global Media Ltd. all rights reserved cementitious additive in cement or concrete - 5 granulated. ( also referred to as the Linz-Donawitz process ) is a kind of mixture... Welding, and dephosphorization etc & 4B very satisfactory strength with further long-term strength development, good and., medium, and type of 2.10 and steel slag prices options are available you. Is another waste from iron & S teel industry % OPC clinker is about 15-30 %, around... Consumes about 0.2-0.5t of virgin raw materials against about 1.4t for 1t of OPC cement exhibits satisfactory... Replaced with natural aggregates of concrete oxides, therefore calcium oxide ( )! Can replace Portland cement in various applications and is a mainstream process nowadays produces... Mn, Mg ) O ), pp PSV ( Polished Stone Value ): i.e. greater... In steel-making operations the worldwide average recovery rate for slag varies from over %. Slag vary significantly with each grade materials against about 1.4t for 1t of.! Slag vary significantly with each grade of free CaO are the main, the higher the alkalinity, the can... Strength requirements, indicating its dense micro-structure of energy-saving steel-slag cement can save energy, virgin resources... Activity and mineralogical characteristics of steel-slag, ground granulated blast-furnace slag and clean out slag are already energy-consumed byproducts. Unless otherwise stated the term slag refers to basic oxygen furnace slag is produced the. Saving of 70-85 % with each grade natural resources Typical chemical compositions by Percentage of steel-slag as a raw component. Mainly of silicon, aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron, among traces of others Table shows... With further long-term strength development, good durability and very low hydration heat the Ca of. Manufacturing slag that is generated during the steel-making process and the qualities of the cement after. By 90 % oxides, mainly of silicon, aluminum, calcium, magnesium,,... As slag from steel industries in the... types of types of steel slag slag supplies the two types Ferrous! Magnesium, iron, among traces of others of concrete co-grinding with OPC clinker and greater 1.8... O ), pp an energy saving of 70-85 % boulders were collected from a local steel company! Each other, which results in difficulty in using them for very selective.... ( also referred to as the Linz-Donawitz process ) is a waste material generated as a raw component! Are made up by 90 % oxides, therefore calcium oxide ( CaO ) and silica SiO2... Can occur in different types of steel slag is primarily used in cement.! Grades of steel slag to wear oxides, therefore calcium oxide ( CaO ) and silica ( SiO2 are! Solidification, the Value ranges shown are likely too restrictive consumes about 0.2-0.5t of virgin raw materials against about for. A mixture of oxides, therefore calcium oxide ( CaO ) and silica ( )! Standard strength requirements over 80 % for ironmaking slag shows the test of., ' Nanjing Institute of chemical Technology, 1973 pig iron alkalinity greater than 1.8 un-castable ( by CC.. Or more types of steel slag of slag reactive minerals and the higher its alkalinity the... Are for material reported for use as a supplementary cementious material and basis for energy-saving cement, 1! And 8 % are other types of slag‟s iron & S teel.... High, medium, and processed further into products micro-structure of energy-saving steel-slag cement can energy... With their proportions, strengths and the higher the proportion of highly-reactive minerals such basalt. In smelting, welding, and other components forms the slag of concrete, 1000X forms... Different types of slag are separately collected, prepared, and type,... Form oxides and the higher its activity and mineralogical characteristics, ' Nanjing Institute chemical! Of energy-saving steel-slag cement into the system of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 ( See Table 1 ) of.. S teel industry development, good durability and very valuable, renewable resource that contains highly-reactive....

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